72 questions and answers concerning Ghadeer Khum

On Thursday, 10th year after the Hijra, on the 18th ZulHijja exactly 8 days after eid Adh’ha in the desert of Ghadeer Khum command for giving allegiance to the commander of the faithful was issued by almighty Allah through His angel and ..........

72 questions and answers concerning Ghadeer Khum

On Thursday, 10th year after the Hijra, on the 18th ZulHijja exactly 8 days after eid Adh’ha in the desert of Ghadeer Khum command for giving allegiance to the commander of the faithful was issued by almighty Allah through His angel and said: O’ the Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you.

1- Issues concerning Ghadeer

Question 1: what is the meaning of Ghadeer?

Answer: it is a small pond that possessed little water that flows in it. Because it is in desert closer to “Juhfah” that is having small pond, it was named as the desert of Ghadeer.

Question 2: why the great incidence of peoples’ allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) is known as Ghadeer?

Answer: the desert of Ghadeer Khum is after the land of “Juhfah” and it situated 3km away from Mecca, therein there is pond that always flow, for the fact for that announcing the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) and paying allegiance of about one hundred and twenty thousand pilgrims among men and women stayed there for two days in hot weather and lack of water, they benefitted from that little pond, and that great incidence was popularly known as “Ghadeer”.

Since then in different write-ups, sayings and poems, the day of allegiance of the entire people to the commander of the faithful (a.s.) the name of Ghadeer was put forward.

Question 3: Is there any other names for it?

Answer: the most popular name for the great incidence of the general peoples’ allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) is this very Ghadeer but another name was also forwarded like:

The day of announcement of guardianship; the day of allegiance; the day of great tree (the great day that there is occurrence of great incidence, or the day whereby the people stood by the huge trees in the desert of Ghadeer and they benefitted from its shadow and everyone prepared canopy for himself).

Question 4: which day does the great incidence occur?

Answer: it was on Thursday, eighteenth Zil Hijjah of the tenth year after the migration, exactly eight days after the eid Ad’ha in the desert on Ghadeer Khum when the commandment of the allegiance of the general people for the commander of the faithful (a.s.) was ordered by Allah through the angel of revelation that: “[O, Messenger!] Proclaim the Message that has been sent down to you from Your Creator”.

Question 5: after which important occasion did Ghadeer took place?

Answer: it took place after the occasion of compulsory pilgrimage which the entire Muslims from different Islamic countries after hearing that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) will attend the occasion, they attended in mass because that was the last pilgrimage of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) which occurs during the last period of his life and consequently it was named as farewell pilgrimage.

Sheikh Kulaini reported that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) stayed ten years after his migration to medina without performing pilgrimage till Almighty Allah in the tenth year after the migration revealed the following verse: “And proclaim the pilgrimage among Men as a Divine Duty; then people will come to you on foot or on lean camels from every remote land; that they may witness profits provided for them”.

Question 6: why the epic of Ghadeer was forwarded during the farewell pilgrimage of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.)?

Answer: every Prophet is having successor and Imam and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) must also have successor and Imam which he must introduce to his people and take their allegiance, but when and within which group?

Which great gathering that the issue of allegiance for the leadership of Imam Ali (a.s.) would reach the ears of the Muslim world? It is a great gathering like during travelling for pilgrimage and that is the farewell pilgrimage which the entire Muslims from the whole Islamic world attended because the presence of the person of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) and indeed that was the best place.

Question 7: what is farewell pilgrimage? And what memoir it has created in the peoples’ memory?

Answer: the attendance of the holy Messenger of Islam (s.a.w.w.) in the pilgrimage ceremony in the tenth year after the migration is known as “farewell pilgrimage”. Because after that the Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.) was not able to perform pilgrimage, therefore his last pilgrimage was named farewell to pilgrimage, and it was because after the pilgrimage ceremony of that year on the eighteenth of Zil Hijjah in the desert of Ghdeer Khum he announced the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other infallible Imams (peace be upon them) of the Shia till the rise of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) and took the allegiance of the entire Muslims, definitely the name of the farewell pilgrimage revive the incidence of Ghadeer Khum in the mind of the people.

Question 8: why the allegiance to the commander of the faithful (a.s.) was not mentioned in the city of Mecca or during the Arafah and minna?

Answer: it is because the commandment of Allah was delivered to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) after he has went out of Mecca and other reasons are as follows: had it been this fact was put forward during the ceremony in the city of Mecca or Arafah or in minna probably it wouldn’t be attractive like that of the day of Ghadeer and it wouldn’t have attracted minds and hearts because all were busy worshipping by then.

But after the conclusion of the pilgrimage ceremony and the pilgrims are ready to return back to their cities and homes is a better opportunity to take allegiance for Imam Ali (a.s.).

Question 9: why the incidence of taken allegiance from the general Muslims for Imam Ali (a.s.) is popularly known as Ghadeer?

Answer: this method of naming this is a common and natural phenomenon in the entire nations that a historical incidence is named after a city or a street or hilly area or a special individual and hence in the hot desert of Ghadeer Khum about one hundred and twenty thousand pilgrims with stressfulness  in terms of water but still yet they all benefitted from the little pond, indeed that great incidence and that luminous memoir took its name after the small pond as “Ghadeer” and it was popularly known as the desert of Ghadeer.

Question 10: why this great incidence was organized at the land of “Juhfah” and what preference does it possessed?

Answer: because the entire Muslims after the completion of pilgrimage ceremony passed through “Juhfah” all together and from there they dispatched to their various cities and homes.

The land of Juhfah is having ways that the people of Mecca separated from other people, there is way from there that leads to the north i.e. Medina; there is another way from there leading to Iraq, and from the west there is a way leading to Egypt and by the south there is a way leading to Yemen.

If the divine commandment is not accomplished at this land (Juhfah) there would be no great gathering of the entire Muslims from the Islamic countries of this form as everyone will scatter to their various places and for the fact that then time there was no radio, television, satellite, news telex and telegraph it would be impossible to disseminate the divine message to the entire Muslims in the entire Islamic countries. Therefore the tremendous preference of the land of Ghadeer is that it was able to gather the entire Muslims from the Islamic countries.

Question 11: why the allegiance of the commander of the faithful (a.s.) was not mentioned in Medinah or in other religious ceremony?

Answer: Almighty Allah chooses the desert of Ghadeer and the reason is that if the allegiance and guardianship was put forward in Medina or during the other religious ceremonies that will be exclusive to limited border or it will be exclusive to particular time and place because the presence of the entire Muslims of Islamic world is not certain in Medina and in other religious ceremonies whereas the pilgrimage ceremony is universal and the entire Muslims attends it. Therefore in order to make Ghadeer universal this important phenomenon must not take place in Medina or at any other ceremony rather it must take place in place like Juhfah.

Question 12: why farewell pilgrimage was chosen for this vital and important occasion?

Answer: because it was the last journey of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) and he must introduce his successor and it is the exclusive gathering whereby the Muslims from Islamic countries gathered and the entire Muslims are in an exclusive worshipping and spiritual situation after the completion of pilgrimage rituals which is not attained in any other spiritual situation, meanwhile the pilgrims after returning back to their countries usually narrates the important occurrences that took place.

Question 13: was the commander of the faithful (a.s.) with the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) from the beginning of the journey?

Answer: never, because Imam Ali (a.s.) was sent to Yemen by the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) for a mission and from there he came to Mecca, but Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) was with the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) right from the beginning to the end of the farewell pilgrimage and she witnessed all the incidence before and after the day of Ghadeer.

Question 14: how the standing post for the Prophet’s sermon (s.a.w.w.) was procured?

Answer: the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) ordered his companions to sprawl the camels and use its loads to procure high standing post for the sermon to the extent he can speak within the crowd and to be clearly seen by the entire people.

Question 15: what was the population of the people in that great gathering?

Answer: there is discrepancy in the recorded number of people in the great day of Ghadeer, some recorded 124 thousand people, some recorded 100 thousand people and some recorded 90 thousand people while another group recorded 120 thousand people.  

Question 16: what are the characteristics possessed by the great gathering of Ghadeer?

Answer: it possessed a lot of characteristics like:

1- Gathering of the entire Islamic countries.

2- The people that present there after the pilgrimage gathered there with exclusive spiritual attraction.

3- The motivation for the gathering was spiritual and with divine commandment.

4- The excess of people in the gathering that day was unique.        

Question 17: is it possible for such great gathering to take place in another place?

Answer: never at all!! Because great armies those days cannot gather such number of people, hence with all effort they can only gather 10- 15 thousand peoples.

Meanwhile, there are no any other attractive gatherings without the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) and likewise such gathering cannot enjoy the spiritual attraction of pilgrimage.   

2- Issues concerning the great incidence of Ghadeer

Question 18: how did the sermon of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) begins and how it ends?

Answer: after standing on the high standing post prepared for the sermon, he commenced with gratitude to God and took confession from those that present and commence his speech saying: how will you give attestation to me? The entire people answered and said: we bear witness that you have delivered the commandment of Allah to us and you have called us to doing goods, may Allah reward you. Then the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: O’ people! Who is more preferable to the believers than themselves?

That time the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) put forward before the general people the descending of Angel of revelation and the last divine commandment concerning Imam Ali (a.s.) and his eleven children till the day of resurrection and he took confession from the entire people to disseminate this news and divine commandment and at the end of the sermon he ordered for the general allegiance and those present at the desert of Ghadeer among men and women paid allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.).    

Question 19: how did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) introduces Imam Ali (a.s.) for the allegiance?

Answer: after communicating the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other eleven Imams of his children(peace be upon them), he proclaimed from the high post of his sermon by holding up his hand to the extent the armpit of the Prophet was seen and said: “whoever am his master Ali is his master”.  

Question 20: who was the first person that paid allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.)?

Answer: after communicating the revelation and calling Imam Ali (a.s.) to the standing post of the sermon, the first person that hold the hand of Imam Ali (a.s.) and paid allegiance to him was the person of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) and other people later paid allegiance to Imam.  

Question 21: when was the allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) and how long doest it lasted?

Answer: nowadays voting or taking opinion is by written papers specifically meant for elections but in the olden days it was in another form which is putting hand on the hand of Imam and greet him as the leader; indeed the allegiance by the men commenced from noon on the day of Ghadeer till evening time while the women allegiance extended to part of the night.

Late Sheikh Abbas Qumi transmitted as follow: the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) descended from pulpit and that was prior to noon time in the hot weather and offered two units of prayers while the caller for prayer called for prayer and the entire people prayed Zuhr prayer with the Prophet. After that he return to his tent and ordered for a tent to be prepare for the commander of the faithful (a.s.) opposite his tent while the commander of the faithful sat down in the tent. Then the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) ordered the Muslims to be going to Imam group by group and to say: “peace be upon you O’ the commander of the faithful”, then the entire men does that.

Afterward he ordered the wife of Imam and other women to pay allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.).

Question 22: what would happen if the allegiance was not given to Imam that day?

Answer: the message wouldn’t have been accomplished while the Islamic nation would have be without leader and they would have be in dilemma and it would be impossible to gather such great and tremendous gathering, meanwhile the message of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) could have remain uncompleted which angel Gabriel have warned the Prophet through divine revelation that: “if you did not do, certainly you’ve not deliver His message”.   

Question 23: did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) also paid allegiance and with whose commandment?

Answer: people with the commandment of Allah and the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) paid allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.), therefore the message of the Prophets without Imamate shall not have continuity.  

Question 24: Did the women also paid allegiance?

Answer: one of the beautifulness of Ghadeer is the generality of every class of the society, among the white and the black, from the riches and the poor, from the immigrants and the helpers, from men and women; indeed that great day everyone have important to play and they all paid allegiance to the commander of the faithful (a.s.). Verily the women also paid allegiance because women according to Islamic perspective have the right to vote; indeed they are free and have the right to participate in deciding their fate.    

Question 25: how did the men and women gave their allegiance to the commander of the faithful (a.s.)?

Answer: the men came to Imam (a.s.) and paid their allegiance to him by putting their hands on his hand and said: “peace be upon you O’ the commander of the faithful”.

After the end of the general allegiance of the men it comes to the turn of the women; the Imam sat in the front of the tent and a basin of water was kept in his front so the holy Imam (a.s.) insert his hand in the basin of water while the Muslim women came to insert their hand in the water and said: “peace be upon you O’ the commander of the faithful” (a.s.).   

Question 26: what are the utterances of men and women when giving their allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.)?.

Answer: Men and women greeted the commander of the faithful (a.s.) and said: “peace be upon you O’ the commander of the faithful”. Indeed other people like Abubakr, Umar and Uthman came before Imam Ali (a.s.) and addressed him saying: congratulation, congratulation to you O’ the father of al-Hassan, verily you have become the master and the master of the entire believers both men and women.

3- At the threshold of Ghadeer

Question 27: what was the verse brought by the angel of revelation on the day of Ghadeer and what was demanded from the Prophet (s.a.w.w.)?

Answer: it was the 67th verse of Surah Ma’idah and it wanted the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) to take allegiance from the entire people for Imam Ali (a.s.) and eleven children among his descendants (peace be upon them) and it warned the holy Prophet that: today if you didn’t announce the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) including the other eleven Imams and take allegiance for them, indeed your message is incomplete. 

Question 28: why did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) demanded from the angel Gabriel to relieved him of the duty?

Answer: because the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) is aware of the oppositional groups likewise he knew the political and military conspiracy and he knew that in order to take the government and political power of the society some people have signed political and military covenant while others have vow within themselves to take over the power after the demise of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) which prompt him to say: I asked Gabriel (a.s.) to relieve me from delivering the message to you, O’ people it is because I knew that the pious ones are little, the hypocrites are many, the sinners are deceitful and the existence of those that mock Islam.       

Question 29: what threaten put forward by the angel of revelation on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: because there will be no continuation of Prophet-hood and message without Imamate and leadership which will amount to the defeat of the aim of the message and that is why the threaten came thus: “today if you did not take allegiance for Imam Ali (a.s.) including his eleven children, indeed your message would become incomplete”.    

Question 30: what promise the angel of revelation gave to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) on the day Ghadeer?

Answer: because the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) is aware of the deep enviousness of the oppositions and he is scared that after the announcement of the guardianship and commandment for the allegiance of the general people, they may cause insurgency and unsheathe the sword and break the divine commandment and message. In this respect Allah through angel Gabriel promise the holy Prophet of victory and guarantee his protection and security and said: “Allah will surely protect you from the evil of the people”.    

Question 31: if the Prophets never scared then what the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) is scared of on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.w.) was not scared of his life but he is scared of the oppositions to guardianship upon announcing the general allegiance of causing insurgency and denting the unity of the Islamic nation. He is scared that the opposition due to their enviousness may unsheathe their sword and break up the dignity of revelation and message. He is scared that lest the opposition deprive general allegiance which may consequently resort to incompletion of the message.

Question 32: what did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) needed from the people on the day of Ghadeer Khum?

Answer: he wanted the entire people to believe and accept the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other eleven Imams among his son and consequently pay allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) in order for them to disseminate the message of that great incidence in their cities, homes, and within their children and relatives so that Ghadeer shouldn’t be forgotten, therefore he said:

O’ the group of people! I am leaving the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) behind for you people which am ordered to communicate to you, it is a manifested evidence for those that are present and those that are absent, likewise it is a proof for those that witness it and those that didn’t witness it; and for the born and the unborn ones, therefore those that are punctual should inform those that are absent and the father to the children till the day of judgment.            

Question 33: was the issue of allegiance to the commander of the faithful (a.s.) the only issue that was put forward on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: no, it is allegiance to the entire infallible Imams (peace be upon them) from Imam Ali (a.s.) till the riser of the family of Muhammad (May Allah hasten his reappearance) that was put forward. Indeed the entire people that are present with the commandment of Allah acknowledged the Imamate of the entire Imams and for the fact that Imam Ali (a.s.) was in their presence they paid allegiance to him which the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: “O’ the group of people! You are too many to place your hands on mine at the same time, but I have been ordered by Allah to take an acknowledgement form you for the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the Imamate of the Imams(peace be upon them) after him which are my and Ali’s children”.        

Question 34: how the combine proposal of Imamate and leadership was put forward on Ghadeer day?

Answer: some people thought that on the day of Ghadeer it was only the issue of guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) that was put forward and people paid allegiance to him and in this respect they forget the Imamate of the other infallible Imams (peace be upon them) rather on the day of Ghadeer the comprehensive proposal of the Imamate after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) till the period of reappearance of the last Imam and the guardianship of the Imam al-Mahdi (May Allah hasten his reappearance) and likewise the period after the reappearance, martyrdom, and the period of returning (Raj’at) till the day of resurrection was put forward. Because the Imams and the successors of the previous Prophets fills the interval between the death of a Prophet till the rise of another Prophet and they took the responsibility of leadership of the people so that people should not in any condition stay without leader and the earth should not be without the proof of Allah.

The infallible Shia Imams (peace be upon them) also fills the time interval between the death of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.) till last hour and they took the responsibility of leadership of the Islamic nation.        

Question 35: what are the demands of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.) in the gathering of that great day?

Answer:

1- He wanted everyone to acknowledge the Imamate of the twelve Imams.

2- He wanted everyone to pay allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.).

3- He wanted everyone not to defy the commandment of Imam Ali (a.s.) and he said: “O’ the group of people! I am leaving the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) behind for you people which am ordered to communicate to you, it is a manifested evidence for those that are present and those that are absent, likewise it is a proof for those that witness it and those that didn’t witness it; and for the born and the unborn ones, therefore those that are punctual should inform those that are absent and the father to the children till the day of judgment”.     

Question 36: what was the great responsibility of those that present on the day of Ghadeer according to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.)

Answer: the Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.) pronounced the great responsibility of those that present on the day of Ghadeer as follows:

1- They should remain loyal after the allegiance.

2- They should be friend to the friends of Imam Ali (a.s.) and enemy to his enemies.

3- The incidence of Ghadeer should be communicated to those that are not present.

4- The incidence of Ghadeer must be conveyed verbally and must be transfer to the future generations.       

Question 37: Who did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) warned on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) warned the entire Muslims that are present on the day of Ghadeer that they should never submit to power mongers and they should not forget the epic of Ghadeer day and said: “O’ group of people! There shall be corrupt leaders after me that shall be chasing people towards hell fire and they shall not have any helper on the Day of Judgment. O’ group of people! Verily Allah and I shall denounce them. O’ group of people! Those corrupt leaders, their helpers, their partisan and their followers shall be at the bottom of hell fire, how bad is the abode of the arrogant. Be aware that: they are the inhabitant of book, therefore it is incumbent for everyone to glance and see what is in the book!! Indeed majority of people are negligent of the contents of the book except few, so he warned lest they disobey the commandment of Imam Ali (a.s.).         

Question 38: who are the people the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) cursed on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) cursed the following people on the day of Ghadeer:

1- Those that shall deny the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.).

2- Those that shall usurp the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.).

“Curse be upon whoever denies it and Allah’s wrath be upon whoever that repudiates his right”.

4- Issue concerning guardianship and Ghadeer      

Question 39: why the leadership of the Islamic nation must be appointed by God?

Answer: there are conditions and characteristics to know a perfect human being and knowing those characteristics is not possible for human being. Human being is an unaware existence that knowing the mystery inside human beings is not possible, then now that human being are not capable to know and choose perfect leader then Almighty Allah who is the Creator of human beings intervene to assist in introduce the perfect leaders and He said: “Allah knows better where to keep His message” in this respect Almighty Allah has chosen Imam Ali (a.s.) and has ordered everyone to pay allegiance to him on the day of Ghadeer.        

Question 40: If Allah has to choose the Imam, then what is the essence of allegiance of the people?

Answer: He guides just as He has shown us things that are good and bad and likewise He has shown us path to felicity and misguidance. He shows the right Imam but people are free to choose their leader, they can choose the right Imam and take them to felicity or disagree with that and go astray. Just like in the other divine directives where some group are successful and another group became deviated.

Indeed some group after the incidence of Ghadeer denied and usurped the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and some other group remain loyal to the guardianship and leadership of Imam Ali (a.s.) and they bought their lives with various torture. Therefore the announcement of the revelation has no any contradiction with the choice and will of the people.            

Question 41: what the people’s allegiance has combated? 

Answer: because the Imam and leader of the society must live within the people, there should be good and bad and then he ordered for the good and people must accept and pay allegiance to him in order to be able to cleanse and purifies the hearts and the society from filths so that the Imam would have supporter for administration. If people deviated from truth for several reasons and they did not observe the orders of the right Imam or they keep him in isolation, the order and commandment of Imam would remain on earth and they shall not have any role to play in issue of Imamate and leadership.       

Question 42: Is it only the guardianship of the commander of the faithful (a.s.) that was announced on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the announcement of the guardianship of the Imam Ali (a.s.) has been put forward several times by the holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.). Buraidah Bn Khudaib Aslami says: one day the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) ordered some group of people (we were seven in number and among us are Abubakr, Umar, Talha and Zubair) that: we should greet Ali the commander of the faithful. We greeted him with the word “O’ the commander of the faithful” even though the Messenger of Allah was alive and he is by our side. Indeed the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) have several time spoke about the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other eleven infallible Imams (peace be upon them) from his descendants, and on the day of Ghadeer he has taken the allegiance for the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other infallible Imams (peace be upon them) and he said: “then I was commanded by Allah to take allegiance from you for Ali, the commander of the faithful (a.s.) and for the other Imams after him. The Imams that are from me and Ali, and there is Imam al-Mahdi among them that shall judge with truth till the day of resurrection”.        

Question 43: if previously the guardianship of the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) has been announced, then which incidence took place on the day of Ghadeer? 

Answer: the entire Muslims on the day of Ghadeer with the directives of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) gave allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) and they all acknowledge the Imamate of the other infallible Imams (peace be upon them) till the riser of the family of Muhammad (May Allah hasten his reappearance) and they accepted their Imamate till the time of returning (Raj’at) and the day of resurrection.       

Question 44: which of the principle among the principles of freedom and democracy the general allegiance of the people has established?

Answer: it is the principle of people’s participation in order to determine their fate, indeed the principle of freedom of the people is the most beautifulness of the incidence of Ghadeer before the Islamic government even though Allah has chosen the right Imam and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) has introduced him but indeed the right of giving allegiance was given to the people.       

Question 45: was the day of Ghadeer the only day for paying allegiance to the commander of the faithful (a.s.)?

Answer: No, rather the day of Ghadeer was the day for giving allegiance to the entire twelve infallible Imams (peace be upon them).

The day of Ghadeer was the day of acknowledging the Imamate of the entire twelve Imams of the Shia (peace be upon them).

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) concerning the commander of the faithful and the eleven Imams among his descendant (peace be upon them) said: “O’ group of people! Be faithful and pay allegiance to the commander of the faithful, al-Hassan, al-Husain and the other Imams from them, they are the eternal pure word, Allah shall perish whoever forsake them and bless their loyalists, whoever break the covenant does that at his own expense and whoever fulfill the covenant bestowed upon him by Allah shall be rewarded tremendously”.        

Question 46: why the message of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) is incomplete if there is no Imamate?

Answer: anything that want continuation and eternity needs two principles:

1- The principle of cause of emergence;

2- The principle of cause of resistance and preservation.

If a discovery is been registered and someone didn’t put it forward for production, indeed the discovery is not preserved because the principle of continuation and preservation is not compatible with the principle of emergence of the discovery and definitely the discovery would be forgotten and it wouldn’t be remembered and it would consequently be perish. Indeed in order to preserve a building, book and an economic proposal this reality is applied. Likewise in the issues of thought and ideology these two principles are also needed:

1- The principle of emergence (the cause for creation);

2- The principle of resistance and preservation (the cause of continuation). The preserver announces school of thought then the nation and the country came into existence with various struggles and efforts and after period of time left the world while the cause of persistence and preservation is not there to give continuation to his path and custom, the school of thought would be abandon due to various deviation and divergence. Then the path of bringing the message would be plundered and after little time its effect shall seize to remain. Therefore message without guardianship and Imamate is incomplete.

5- The incidences after Ghadeer            

Question 47: why those in opposition to guardianship reach logjam on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the political oppositional that reach political and military covenant with one another believed that: hence the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) is alive they would not be able to reach their political ambition therefore they kept all their plans till after the period of the Prophet. This prompted the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) on the pulpit or in the street or in an ordinary gatherings to spoke and gave directives concerning the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and his descendants, indeed it was pathetic and deplorable for the oppositions but it was bearable to an extent.

The day of Ghadeer Khum was tailed with years of remembrance and directive and in terms of application it enters the last level of materializing the issue of leadership and allegiance was taken for Imam Ali (a.s.) in that great and tremendous gathering because Hadith and narrations can be forgotten due to cultural invasion and besieging but how is it possible to cleanse the memory without military threat of the allegiance of 120 thousand pilgrims of men and women that are returning from the sanctuary of Allah? Can it be cleanse from the dictionary? Can it be cleanse from the brain and heart? It is from this respect they see no need for their military and scandalous movement.        

Question 48: who was the first person that openly makes an oppositional move?

Answer: it was a person known as Harith Bn Nu’man that with motivation of others he was able to openly oppose the move and he argued with the Messenger of Allah.      

Question 49: after the general allegiance who stood for conspiracy and opposition?

Answer: it was those that have the plan to assassinate the holy Prophet; those that after 75 days attacked the home of Imam Ali (a.s.). Indeed it was those that usurped the Imamate from the holy household of the Prophet (peace be upon them).     

Question 50: why there is no excuse for any person after the incidence of Ghadeer?

Answer: Because it was communicated by the angel and it was announced by the Messenger of Allah.

It was divine selection and it was clear allegiance of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) to Imam Ali (a.s.) and at the end the allegiance of the general people to the entire infallible Imams (peace be upon them) right from Imam Ali (a.s.) till Imam al-Mahdi (a.s.). Then verbal and physical allegiance of the entire Muslims of Islamic countries together with the holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.). Then shall there be any excuse for denying Ghadeer? Never at all! Indeed Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) has repeatedly mentioned this reality and said: “Allah did not leave proof nor excuse for anyone after the incidence of Ghadeer”.       

Question 51: what the first oppositional to Ghadeer that was punished said to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.)?

Answer: He was Harith Bn Nu’man Fahari, after his open opposition he said to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.): “O’ Muhammad! We accepted your call to God, you put forward Prophet-hood, there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, we said it, you called us to Islam and we answered your call, you ordered us to pray five times daily we obeyed, you admonished us for alms giving, fasting, pilgrimage and fighting in the course of Allah we obeyed, now you are making your cousin as our commander which we don’t know whether this law is from God or from your personal interest?”, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) answered him and said: I swear to God who there is no any other Lord apart from Him that this commandment is from Him.       

Question 52: how the first oppositional to Ghadeer was punished?

Answer: Harith Bn Nu’man Fahari himself demanded for the punishment thinking that there is no any power that would hold him responsible. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) told him that announcing the guardianship of the commander of the faithful (a.s.) and the order for the general allegiance is by the commandment of Allah and I don’t have any responsibility except to announce and execute that. Nu’man after hearing the respond became enraged, he therefore face the heaven and said: “O’ God! If what Muhammad was saying concerning Ali is from You and Your commandment, punish me by descending a stone from heaven upon me”, Harith Bn Nu’man did not finished his statement when a stone descended from the heaven and perished him which necessitate the revelation of verses 1 and 2 of Surah Ma’rij. 

Question 53: which of the verse of the holy Qur’an that carries the punishment of the opposition to Ghadeer?

Answer: It is verses 1 and 2 of Surah Ma’arij.

“A demander demanded Allah to send a Chastisement on him; for the disbelievers there is no repeller Against the Divine Chastisement in this World and in the Hereafter”        

Question 54: at beginning of the opposition what does Fatima Zahra (peace be upon her) said? 

Answer: Hadrat Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her) looked at Imam Ali (a.s.) significantly and said: “O’ Father of al-Hassan! Did you think this man is alone in opposition to Ghadeer? I swear to God, he is pioneer of group of people that are yet to unveil the cover from their faces but they shall advance their opposition at any time they have the opportunity”, Imam Ali (a.s.) when answering her said: I will obey the commandment of Allah and that of the Prophet and I will put my hope on Allah, indeed He is the best helper.     

Question 55: how many verses that were specified for those that opposed Ghadeer?

Answer: the specified verses for those that opposed Ghadeer are as follows:

1- Verse 1 and 2 of Surah Ma’arij that was concerning the opposition and punishment of Harith Bn Nu’man Fahari.

2- Verse 67 of Surah al-Ma’idah that is also having connection with the oppositions: “Allah will protect you from [the mischievous] people. Verily, Allah does not guide the disbelievers”     

Question 56: What are the conspiracies of those that opposed Ghadeer?

Answer: they have a lot of conspiracies but the most important out of it are as follows:

1- Open opposition.

2- Plot to terrorize and execution of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) in the hilly areas in Medina.

3- Political and military covenant in order to take over the government.

4- Writing scroll of fabricators and the cursed ones.       

Question 57: how did the first armed encounter failed after the incidence of Ghadeer? 

Answer: they thought the guardianship of the commander of the faithful (a.s.) will end up in a logjam then they took their final decision which was to terrorize and execute the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) by spooking the camel of the Prophet in “Aqabah” a hilly road that is having deep valleys in order to accomplish their plot, they said to each other to set an ambush at Aqabah and by throwing stones, sticks and shouting dangerous voice they would spook the camel of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) so that he would fall inside the deep valley, indeed they plot all these in the night so that by day break they would shout for the natural death of the Prophet.

They went for the ambush waiting for the coming of the camel of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) together with his entourage. The holy Prophet of Islam was acquainted with their plot through the angel of revelation, when they came closer to Aqabah he ordered Huzaifah Bn Yaman and Ammar Yasir that one of them should hold the one bridle of the camel and the other should lead the camel.

The hypocrites set their ambush, they threw everything they are having and shout different and various voice in order to spook the camel but with the commandment of Allah there is no any sign of shaking from the camel and the terror act was unsuccessful.

Terrorizing the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) is a golden opportunity they don’t want to forfeit so they unsheathed their swords and attacked the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) but they were faced with the resistance of Ammar Yasir and Huzaifah, had it been they delay a little the Prophet caravan that is very close to reach the scene could have perish the entire hypocrites, so they were forced to flee.

Who are those people, Huzaifah inquired from the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet said, look at them: by then the thunder lightened and he saw all of them.

The unsuccessful terror and divulging the names of the planners is the first dangerous alarm in Islamic nation which shows that the oppositions has reached logjam and they did not leave any act un-touch in order to leave the companion of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) in grief and dejection, and with scared and serious supervision they protect the life of the Prophet. Indeed everyone knew the discrepancies would follow consequently they foresee the future bitter incidences. Indeed that was the fears and lamentations of the Messenger of Allah in verge of his death for Imam Ali (a.s.) and his holy household (peace be upon them).                   

Question 58: what are the aims and objectives of the political formations after the incidence of Ghadeer?

Answer: after the general allegiance of the Muslims to Imam Ali (a.s.) and the fear of the oppositions, every moment there is possibility in that lengthy journey from the scene of Ghadeer Khum to Medina of probable satanic political formations to inflict assassination so that the Islamic world and the unity of Islamic nation to become unpleasant and repulsive. In this respect the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) ordered to be announced that: “from now till they reach Medina two or three person has no right to gather together or to whisper to each other”. With this commandment the satanic formation was defeated and put an end to their conspired gatherings, to this end the oppositional groups throughout the journey were not able to organize their plans or to materialize any dangerous move.         

Question 59: how was the first scandalous scroll and for what reason it was written? 

Answer: the thought of scroll came in order to announce their disagreement with the guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.) and to prove that their disagreement is organized and firm. In this respect they gathered in the house of Abubakr and after much discussions they wrote a covenant letter with the handwriting of Saeed Bn A’s in fact going through the signatory to this scroll shows the deep envy of the Quraysh and the opposition to Imam Ali (a.s.), indeed it is established that the following names are foremost among the signatory to the scroll: Abu Sufyan, the son of Abi Jahl, Safwan Bn Umayah. That is, the ringleaders of polytheist and unbeliever joined hands with the hypocrites among the Muslims in order to deny the light of guardianship.        

Question 60: which of the verse of the holy Qur’an the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) recited in order to divulged their scandalous scroll? 

Answer: the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) when he witnessed Abu Ubaidah Jarrah he knows their hidden conspiracy then he recited verse 79 of Surah Baqarah: “Then woe to those who write the Book With their own hands, and then they [to the people] say:" This is from Allah”.

6- Ghadeer in the verses of the Qur’an and in the narrations       

Question 61: which of the first verses having connection with the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the first verse concerning the great incidence of Ghadeer that was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) was verse 67 of Surah Ma’idah: “[O, Messenger!] Proclaim the Message that has been sent down to you from Your Creator”.        

Question 62: how many verses of the holy Qur’an that was specified for the great incidence of the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: there are four verses that were specified for the great incidence of ghadeer:

1- Verse 67 of Surah Ma’idah is the first verse: ““[O, Messenger!] Proclaim the Message….”

2- The third verse of Surah Ma’idah: “Today, I Have perfected your religion for you”.

3- Verse 1 and 2 of Surah Ma’arij: “A demander demanded Allah to send a Chastisement on him…..” concerning the punishment of Harith Bn Nu’man Fahari.

4- Verse 79 of Surah al-Baqarah: “Then woe to those who write the Book” concerning the political covenant of Abubakr, Umar, Uthman, Abu Ubaidah and Salim, the covenant letter which was kept in the custody of Ubaidah and the following morning the Prophet read the above verse to him.       

Question 63: why the religion was perfected on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: this is having connection with Prophet-hood and Imamate because the Prophets of the divine religion deliver their messages to the people and they form nation and country of Monotheism consequently they are cause of bringing religion into existence whereas the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) after the Prophets preserve and transfer the divine religion to the future generation, indeed they are the cause of preservation and eternity of the religion of God because during the Ghadeer allegiance to guardianship has been materialized and the Imamate took its radiation from the Prophet-hood which perfected the religion: “Today, I Have perfected your religion for you and Completed My Favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as Religion”.

Question 64: why the favors of Allah upon human being were completed on the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: the entire favors, the entire good, reconciliation and tranquility, security and good welfare and every other thing are under the shadow of the sovereignty of Islam and the sovereignty of Islam after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) is through the radiation of the guardianship of the holy progeny, therefore the favor of guardianship is better than any other favor which was accomplished through the allegiance of the general people for the guardianship of the of the holy progeny which make the perfection of Allah’s favor “and Completed My Favor upon you”.      

Question 65: how did Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) put forward the incidence of Ghadeer?

Answer: Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) said: so astonishing! Did you people forget the day of Ghadeer Khum? I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) saying: Ali is the best among those I left behind, he is the Imam and my successor after me, my two grandson and nine from the descendant of Husain (a.s.) are the righteous Imam, if you follow them you would find them to be a guide and they guide, but if you disagree with them, there shall be disagreement between you till the day of resurrection.     

Question 66: how do the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) propagated Ghadeer?

Answer: the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) always discuss and dialogue political and ideology issues with the people and remembering them of Ghadeer and said if you confessed that there is day of Ghadeer and allegiance for guardianship materialized that day, then why did you accept the government other than our government? Then after Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) the next person that have use the method of debating in putting forward the Issue of Ghadeer in terms of application was Imam Ali (a.s.). Imam in many sensitive times and in the day of Shura till 23 year after the Hijra, he said: I am inquiring from you, to God! Is there anyone among you the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) said in his respect apart from me: whoever I am his master Ali is his master, O’ Allah give allegiance to those that give him allegiance, be in enmity with those in enmity with him, help those that help him and those that present should inform those that are absent. The entire people said: no one apart from you.

Then after the commander of the faithful (a.s.) Imam Hassan Mujtaba (a.s.), Ammar Yasir, Abdullah Bn Ja’far, and Qais Bn Sa’ad, all remembered and argued the epic of Ghadeer with the enemies of guardianship of Imam Ali (a.s.).

Other people also acquainted from Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) through the hadith of Ghadeer who is pioneer of this path and they have discussed and argued with the enemies of guardianship base on the epic of Ghadeer of which one of them was Asbagh Nabatah. Asbagh was one of the men and companion of Hadrat Ali (a.s.) that was sent to Sham in order to dialogue with Muawiyah. He said: When I entered to Muawiyah I saw Amru Bn A’s and other Umayyad leaders sitting circling round Muawiyah and Abu Darda’I was at his front till his eyes fell on me and said: Uthman was unjustly assassinated and why Ali (a.s.) didn’t hand over the assassins to me? In answering Muawiyah I said: O’ Muawiyah! We and you knew that you are telling lie, you put forward the issue of Uthman as a pretext in order to take over the government. After that I said to Abu Hurairah: I swear to God that you worship, where you were on the day of Ghadeer: Abu Hurairah said: I was in the midst of the people. I inquired, what the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) said that day concerning Imam Ali (a.s.)? Abu Hurairah said that heard the Messenger of Allah to have said: whoever I am his master Ali is his master, O’ Allah give allegiance to those that give him allegiance, be in enmity with those in enmity with him, help those that help him and forsake whoever forsake him.

O’ Abu Hurairah! I said: you that have heard this statement from the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) then why did you take Ali (a.s.) as your enemy? Abu Hurairah only said: From Allah we come and unto him we shall return.

When Muawiyah saw that my method of argument is having impact on the audience, he shouted and kept me shut.

The epic of Ghadeer is so esteemed that the enemies of Imam in their discussion and debate also remembered the hadith of Ghadeer like: Amru Bn A’s in order to gain upper hand upon Muawiyah, and Umar Bn AbdulAziz in order to gain victory upon the opposition and the officials in order to answer the scholars of various Islamic creeds. Indeed the above people can be mentioned among those people that used hadith Ghadeer for their debate and argument.     

Question 67: What is the greatest Islamic festival according to the perspective of the Imams of the Shia (peace be upon them)?

Answer: one of the political and societal responsibilities of the Muslims after the great incidence of Ghadeer according to the Shia Imams’ perspective is that the greatest festival of Islamic nation is Eid Ghadeer. Imam Rida (a.s.) said: it is the day of adornment, whoever adorned himself on the day of Ghadeer, Allah shall pardon all his mistakes both big and minor.    

Question 68: why Ghadeer is everything of the Shia?

Answer: because Ghadeer means allegiance to guardianship and guardianship is everything for the Islamic nation, if there is no guardianship of the progeny of the Prophet (peace be upon them) the religion would be incomplete and the Prophet-hood of the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) would be incomplete and consequently the divine favors is incomplete.    

Question 69: what was the statement of Hadrat Zahra (peace be upon her) to the people of Medina concerning the day of Ghadeer?

Answer: one of the days after the demised of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) people gathered in the street very close to the house of the Hadrat Imam Ali (a.s.) and the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon her) came out of the house and stood by the entrance door and addressed the people saying: “I don’t have covenant with group of people like you people, you left and abandoned the corpse of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) in our hands, you broke the covenant, you rejected and denied the guardianship and leadership of Imam Ali (a.s.) and we the holy household and you did not return our indisputable right to us.

Were you not aware of Ghadeer Khum? To God that the honorable Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.) that day presented the guardianship and the leadership of Imam Ali (a.s.) and took allegiance from the people in order to cut your hope from the opportunist that are power thirsty but you people have cut the spiritual means of connection between you and the Prophet (s.a.w.w.), but you should know that God shall judge between we and you in this world and in the hereafter”.    

Question 70: without Ghadeer will there be the existence of Ashura?

Answer: never, because Ashura came into existence in continuation of materializing the culture of Ghadeer.

Ghadeer Khum means allegiance with the guardianship of the progeny of the holy Prophet (peace be upon them) and if the Islamic nation paid allegiance to the guardianship of the holy progeny of the Prophet and they accepted that then they will not be able to accept the scandalous government of Yezid! Therefore the martyrs of Ashura are the volunteers and disciples that are acquainted with the path of Ghadeer.      

Question 71: without the existence of Ghadeer would the believer and the hypocrite be known?

Answer: if guardianship did not exist the fabricators, the hypocrites that are thirsty of power and those that disguise to be Muslim wouldn’t have been tested, all would have claimed of being faithful and claim companionship of the holy Prophet, everyone claimed to be Muslim but when the commandment of Allah was delivered to them for giving allegiance to the real Imam and that they should remain committed to it, some group of people openly go against it and some other group wrote political covenant. Some organize several conspiracies in order oust themselves from the successor-ship of the holy progeny (peace be upon them); therefore Ghadeer is a criterion of knowing the believer and the hypocrite which Aba Abdullah has said: “We don’t used to know the hypocrites during the time of the Messenger of Allah except through their hatred and abhorrence to Ali (a.s.) and his children after the Prophet”.      

Question 72: without the existence of Ghadeer would there be possibility of continuation of the real Islam?

Answer: Never at all!! Because it will be Islam without guardianship, and they would put forward various conventional customs of the age of ignorant in the name of Islam and that is what brought 72 groups into existence. In this respect Ghadeer brought forward the Issue of Islamic guardianship and indeed it is the Islamic guardianship that guaranteed the continuation of the real Islam till the Day of resurrection.