EVENT OF GHADIR; THE EXPRESSIVE EVIDENCE FOR GUARDIANSHIP
EVENT OF GHADIR; THE EXPRESSIVE EVIDENCE FOR GUARDIANSHIP
THE QURAISH IN THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE
Through the prophetic texts, words and behaviors of the Farewell Pilgrimage, it is obviously comprehensible that the whole matter was aimed at giving emphasis to the present and coming role of the Prophet’s household. Directly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) foretold of the coming of twelve imams, and instructed that those imams should be representing the minor weighty thing in this nation, while the Quran is the major. In other words, the Prophet explicated the obligatory compliance with those imams in the entire aspects of life. For instance, those imams were forbidden from receiving alms, while they should enjoy another sort of rates; which is the one fifth rate.
The Quraish could no longer stand the Prophet’s sermons, words and activities that, as a whole, identified preference of Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein. They understood the situation as if it had been a process of dedicating leadership to the Hashemites, and depriving the other clans of receiving any leading position. Moreover, the perceived the process as if they would be kept as released slaves of the Hashemites.
It is natural for Sunni reference books of hadith to neglect the Quraishi chiefs’ forthright reaction towards these prophetic sermons. Most surely, the Prophet’s words disturbed the Quraishis whose chiefs; such as Suheil Bin Amr, Ikrima Bin Abi Jahl, Safwan Bin Umaya Bin Khalaf, Hakim Bin Hizam, Suheib Bin Sinan, Abul-Awar As-Salami and the others, were gloomy-faced while they were listening to the Prophet paving the way to the Hashemites’ leadership. Immediately, they acted energetically to contact the Quraishi Muhajirs, other than the Hashemites, for finding a suitable treatment for this impending prophetic trend.
On the other hand, the Shiite reference books of hadith provide that the inceptive of such rigorous activities was in conquest of Mecca. During the Farewell Pilgrimage, activities expanded to attain climax in Mina at days of Tashriq. The outcome of their consultation and activities was the conclusion of that treaty which is called, by the Shias, ‘the accursed document’ in which they agreed upon depriving the Hashemites of joining leadership to prophesy.
Few members of that treaty arrived slyly in Mecca, and hanged that second accursed document near the first one inside Kaba.
That was a new unanimous document against the Hashemites. Unlike the first which decided a blockade in the col and was signed in the names of Lat and Uzza; the pagans, the new one proposed a political embargo aimed at depriving the Hashemites of holding the leadership after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and signed in the name of Islam.
Our reference books of hadith mention that the Lord informed His Apostle of details of that document, and the Prophet reproached the parties who could not stand still before him. Like the other prophets, the Apostle of God stopped at constituting claims against them, and granted them full option to act. This is the principle of the prophets’ conveyance. Prophets, however, are instructed not to exceed their duties of constituting the Lord’s claims against people.
Supposing that the noise and discord intentionally arisen during the Prophet’s sermonizing and mentioning the lineage of the coming twelve imams, as the Sunni reference books alleged, was one of the programmed activities against the Hashemites, then the Prophet would certainly reprimand and clarify that he had previous knowledge of their aims.
RESULTS OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE
For the Quraishis, the Farewell Pilgrimage passed peacefully, since the Prophet did not take any practical step in the course of nominating the new leader, although he spoke very much about the Hashemites, and his progeny, offspring and Fatima, and their being the Lord’s choice and the coming imams, and the ruling of prohibiting them from receiving any of the alms and dedicating the one fifth rate to them. Furthermore, the Prophet did not demand with swearing fealty to Ali; the first imam of his household.
The Prophet conceived that the Quraishis attained the further borders of tolerance and they could not stand any more instructions. That was the further conveyance of the Lord’s message regarding his progeny’s leadership. If he demanded with swearing fealty to Ali in that situation, they would distrust prophesy and accuse him of establishing a monarchy, similar to that of the Romans and the Persian, for the Hashemites. Providing this had occurred, the Quraishis had had the ability of leading the Arabs to mutiny. They anticipated that Ali’s leadership will lead to the continuous leadership of his successors forever.
Reference books of hadith record such statements spoken by the Quraishi chiefs who, as if they had never smelt the odor of Islam, perceived it as a question of Mohammed’s kingship, that he might give to anyone he liked, or to his progeny exclusively.
FROM THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH, THE REVELATION AND THE QURAISHIS PRESSURED THE PROPHET
During the Farewell Pilgrimage and its fatal circumstances, Gabriel was carrying the Lord’s mandates repeatedly. Along with the pilgrimage season, the Prophet received the Lord’s instructions constantly. It is likely that statements of the sermons were received via Gabriel.
“O Mohammed! Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, greets you and informs that your departure will be imminent, and soon you will be approaching Him. He orders you of explicating the ritual pilgrimage in the same way you have explicated rulings of prayer, rates and fasting.” That was one of the angel’s statements conveyed to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Al-Madina.
Carrying out this mandate, the Prophet led the Muslims to the pilgrimage and its rites. Besides, he pursued focusing principles of Islam and the unique standings of his household in their mentalities. This is clear through the prophetic texts regarding the coming twelve imams, the two weighty things, and the dedication of the one fifth rate to them, the deprivation of the alms… etc.
During the final days of the pilgrimage, Gabriel descended with the following instructions: “Allah; the Exalted, orders you of leading your nation to their leader. Call for the declaration of covenant, and endow him the knowledge you have and the prophets’ heritage and publicize his leadership. None of the prophets was deceased before he had perfected the religion. The land must not be left without a claim against creatures.”
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) concluded that he would not be able to declare so during these very moments for the Quraishis’ contemporary tense condition. He also took in consideration that his people had just forborne Jahilism, and would object and show disrelish if he was to nominate his cousin as the new leader. Hence, he decided to carry out that divine mandate as soon as he would be back in Al-Madina where he would prepare for it and seek Ansar’s aid.
THE PROPHET’S CARAVAN IS STOPPED BY THE REVELATION
As he intended to carry out the divine mandate of declaring the next leadership of his household, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) left Mecca.
On the third day of the journey, the Prophet reached Kuraul-Ghamim. It is a place between Mecca and Al-Madina that is eight miles before Asfan. It was five hours after the sunrise when Gabriel descended and conveyed: “O Mohammed! Allah, the Powerful the Elevated, greets you and says: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)”
The Prophet apprehended and succumbed to his Lord. He could not move any further single step. The Muslims whose leading ones were about to arrive Al-Juhafa which was an inhabited village about two miles away from Kuraul-Ghamim, were given the orders of halting. The Prophet aimed for carrying out that rigid divine mandate in the very place where it had been revealed. “Release my she-camel,” the Prophet ordered, “By God I swear, I am not to leave this place before I will convey my Lord’s message.” He also ordered the Muslims to be there.
The Prophet rode off. The angel was next to him. He was so contented as he saw the Prophet tremble due to fearing the Lord. His eyes were teary while he spoke: “Is it threat and plight and peril? I will keep up Allah’s concern. If they accuse and belie me, this shall be less arduous than countering the distressing punition in this world and the Hereafter.”
Before he left, the angel had referred to a small area of trees to the right. The Prophet left the angel and directed to that garden to abide.
Muslims narrated: We were on our way to the place identified, we could hear the Prophet call us for answering the Lord’s prolocutor. Owing to the extremely hot weather, we hastened. We saw the Prophet put a part of his cloak on the head. A collective prayer was declared while time for the obligatory prayer had not arrived yet.
It was time for another prayer that should be mandatorily performed. It is the precept of swearing fealty to the Prophet’s immaculate progeny. Whatever the reaction would be, this precept would have been obligatorily carried to Muslims. The Lord did emphasize and inform that it had not been the Prophet’s personal concern that he should take people’s mischievous response in consideration through conveying to people. The Lord should be the most considered in this regard. He would protect against such mischievous response. Hence, the Prophet should carry out the orders.
On that extremely hot day, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gave the orders of sweeping the place under these trees so that it would be taken as a situation for addressing the sermon of leadership, and performing the prayer. He also gave the orders of establishing an elevated place to be taken as a pulpit, so that the Prophet’s eyes would fall on the entire Muslims, who encompassed him, during sermonizing.
Muslims carried out the orders. They placed saddles of camels on these stones so that the quasi-pulpit would be more elevated and handsome.
Muslims approached the spring -Ghadir-. They drank, served their animals and ablated. Before performing the obligatory prayer, they had surrounded the Prophet for listening to the sermon. The garden was too narrow to involve the large numbers of Muslims; therefore, many had to sit under sunlight or the pack animals for shading.
The entire attendees understood that there had been a matter to be provided during the coming sermon. There must have been a revelation of such a remarkable matter that the Prophet could not stand two more miles to be in Al-Juhafa.
Pursuant to narratives, the total number of the individuals who performed the Farewell Pilgrimage with the Prophet was about one hundred and twenty thousand. After consummation of the pilgrimage rites, many of them left the Prophet. People of Mecca remained in their city. Individuals whose cities and villages were near At-Taif, took that way. Others took the way to Jedda, and the like.
Nevertheless, thousands of individuals took the same way the Prophet had taken since they lived in Al-Madina and the neighboring. Approximately, they were ten thousand.
Documenting the Quraishis’ attempts to cover up occurrence of Ghadir, imam As-Sadiq said: “What strange misfortunes Ali Bin Abi Talib had encountered! He had ten thousand witnesses and he could not save his right! People usually save their rights by two witnesses only.”*
Muslims waited not too long. They saw the Prophet ascend that pulpit of stones and saddles, and commence his sermon with the Name of Allah. He began to verify that honorable prophetic poesy in glorifying and praising the Lord and proving ultimate slavery to Him.
Subsequently, the Prophet made apology for driving them to halt in such a poor place, and granting them no respite to reach Al-Juhafa; the village where water and means of comfort were available, and which was only two miles away from that place. Moreover, he apologized for preceding this congregation to time of the Dhuhr prayer, and demanding with listening to him in such an intolerable weather.
He notified that Gabriel came in Kheif Mosque, carrying the Lord’s mandate of nominating Ali, declaratorily, as the new leader of the Muslims.
He sermonized: “I was so disturbed for the Lord’s instructing me obligatorily to convey a message. I anticipated that people would belie me. I thought that since my people were such fresh Muslims that they had soon forborne Jahilism, they would object or show loathing when I would nominate my cousin as the next leader. The Lord, in this place, threatened a decisive punishment if I do it not.” Allah; the Blessed the Exalted, guaranteed guarding me against people. He is the Benevolent Protector. He revealed to me: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)
There is no god But He Whose timing is unexpected, and injustice is unavailing. I acknowledge my slavery to Him, and testify His godhead. I am to convey what He has revealed to me, lest an unavoidable catastrophe will strike me, and none will be meet enough to save me. O People! I am close on responding the invitation. How will you express?”
“We do admit you have conveyed and advised,” recognized people.
“Do you acknowledge there is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is being the Apostle of Allah, and the Paradise is rectified, and the hell-fire is rectified, and the resurrection is rectified?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, we do, God’s messenger!” confessed they.
As he pointed to his chest, the Prophet said, “I do, too.”
He then added: “I will precede you. You will join me on the Divine Pool the width of which is as same as the distance from San’a -Yemen- to Busra -Syria-. Its cups are as copious as stars. Its water is whiter than silver. Suppose how will you regard me in the two weighty things?”
“What are the two weighty things, God’s messenger?” asked a man.
The Prophet answered: “The major is Allah’s Book. One of its edge is being in the Lord’s hand, while the other is in yours. Adhere to it and you shall neither incline nor deviate. The minor is my progeny; my household. I adjure you by Allah not to disregard my household. I adjure you by Allah not to disregard my household. I adjure you by Allah not to disregard my household. The two shall never separate till they join me on the Pool. I implored my Lord to keep this bond. Precede them not, lest you shall be perished. Elude them not, lest you shall be deviating. Teach them not, since they are more learned than you.
O people! Do you know that Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, is being my Master, and I am master of the believers, and I am preceded to yourselves?”
“Yes, we do. God’s messenger!” declared people.
Here, The Prophet asked Ali to stand erect. Ali did. The Prophet caused him to stand to his right, and raised his hand so highly that the armpits of both were seen. Then, he maintained:
“He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him, and turn the right whenever he turns.
O people! You should realize that it was Allah Who nominates him as your leader and Imam. He imposes compliance with him upon Muhajirs, Ansar, their well followers, the Bedouins, the urban, the non-Arabs, the Arabs, the masters and the slaves, the young and the old.”