Prayer and its rules Part 5

- In the following three cases, the prayers offered by a person will be valid, even if his body or dress be najis: 

Prayer and its rules Part 5

Exceptional cases

- In the following three cases, the prayers offered by a person will be valid, even if his body or dress be najis: 

* If his body or dress is stained with the blood discharged from a wound or a sore on his body. 

* If his body or dress is stained with blood, spread over a space lesser than a dirham (which is almost equal to the upper joint of the thumb). 

* If he has no alternative but to offer prayers with najis body or dress.

* Further, there is one situation in which, if the dress of one who prays is najis, the Prayer will be valid. And that is, when small clothes like socks, scalp caps are najis. Rules of these four situations will be explained in details later. 

- If the body or the dress of a person wishing to pray is stained with blood from wound or sore etc, he can pray with that blood as long as the wound or the sore has not healed up. And the same applies to pus, which may flow out with blood, or any medicine which became najis, when applied to the wound or the sore. 

- If blood on the dress or the body of a person who is praying, originates from a small cut or wound which can be healed easily, and which can be washed clean, then his Prayer is void. 

- If any part of the body, or the dress, which is away from the wound, becomes najis owing to the fluid which oozes out from the wound, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it. However, if a part of the body or dress around the wound becomes najis, owing to suppuration, there is no harm in offering prayers with it. 

- If the body or dress of a person is stained with blood from internal piles, or from a wound which is within one's mouth, nose etc., he can offer prayers with that blood. But if the blood is from external piles, then it is obviously permissible to offer prayers with it. 

- If a person has a wound on his body and he sees blood on his body or dress which is bigger than the area of a dirham and does not know whether it is from his wound or some other blood, as an obligatory precaution, he should not pray with it. 

- If a person has several wounds, but they are so near one another that they may be treated as one, there is no harm in offering prayers with their blood, as long as they have not healed. However, if they are separate, each one as an independent wound, he should wash and make clean of the body and dress, each time when a wound is healed up. 

- If the clothes or the body of a person praying, is stained with the blood of Hayz, however little, the Prayer will be void. And as a precaution, the same rule applies to the blood of Nifas, Istihaza and the blood from sources which are essentially najis, like a pig, a carcass, or an animal whose meat is haraam.

As regards other bloods, like the blood from a human body, or from an animal whose meat is halal, there is no harm in offering prayers with them, even if they are found at several places on the dress or the body, provided that, when added together, their area is less than that of a dirham. 

- If blood stains one side of the dress, and then seeps through to the other side, it will be considered as one. However, if the other side of the dress gets smeared with blood separately, each one will be considered as a separate blood. Therefore, if blood on both sides is less than a dirham in area when put together, Prayer will be valid with them. But if it exceeds the area, then Prayer will be void. 

- If blood falls on a dress which has a lining, and reaches it, or falls on its lining and reaches the upper part of the dress, each of them will be considered separate blood, unless they are so joined together, that it would be customarily be considered as one blood. Hence if the area of the blood of the dress and that of the lining, when added together, are less than the area of a dirham, the prayers offered with them will be in order, and if they are more, the prayers offered with that blood will be void. 

- If the area of the blood on one's body or dress is less than that of a dirham, and some moisture reaches it and spreads over its sides, the prayers offered with that blood is void, even if the blood and the moisture which has spread there, is not equal to the area of a dirham. However, if the moisture reaches the blood only, without wetting its edges, then there is no objection in offering prayers with it. 

- If there is no blood on the body or dress of a person, but it becomes najis because of contact with some moisture mixed with blood, prayers cannot be offered with it, even if the part which has become najis is less than the area of a dirham. 

- If the area of the blood present on the body or dress of a person is less than that of a dirham, but another najasat reaches it, like when a drop of urine falls on it, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it, regardless of whether this extraneous najasat reaches the body or the dress or not. 

- If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts, become najis, and if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order. And there is also no objection if one offers prayers with a najis ring. 

- It is permissible for a person in Prayer to carry with him najis things, like najis handkerchief, key and knife. Similarly, if he has a separate najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers. 

- If a person knows that the area of the blood stain on his body or dress is less than that of a dirham, but suspects that it may be one of those blood (e.g. Hayz, Nifas, Istihaza) which are not excused in Prayer, he is permitted to offer prayers with that blood, and it will not be necessary to wash it off. 

- If the area of blood stains on the dress, or body of a person, is less than that of a dirham, but he is not aware that it is one which is not excused in the prayers, and learns later after Prayer, that it was the blood which are not excused, it is not necessary for him to repeat the prayers again.

Similarly, if he believes that the span of the blood is less than that of a dirham and offers prayers, then comes to know later, that it was equal to or more than the area of a dirham, it is not necessary to repeat the prayers again.

Mustahab things

- A number of things are Mustahab for the dress of a person who offers prayers. Some of these are: Turban, along with its final fold passed under the chin; loose garment on the shoulder ('Aba); white dress; and cleanest dress; use of perfume, and wearing of ring made up from Aqeeq (Agate). 

Makrooh things

Certain Items are Makrooh for the Dress of One who prays: 

- To wear a black, a dirty, or a tight dress, or to put on a dress of a person who is a drunkard, or of one who is careless about najasat. Similarly, to wear a dress which has images printed or drawn on it, to keep the buttons open, to wear a ring which has images engraved on it. 

Place where Prayer should be prayed

There are seven conditions for the place where one should offer prayers: 

* The first condition: The place where the prayers are offered should be Mubah (permissible place). If a person prays on a usurped property, then as an obligatory precaution, his prayers are void, even if he prays on a carpet, or a couch, or similarly objects. However, there is no harm in offering prayers under a usurped roof or a usurped tent. 

- Prayers offered in a property whose use and benefit belongs to someone else, will be void, unless permission is taken from its owner. For example, if a house has been rented out, and the owner of the house, or anyone else offers prayers in that house without permission of the tenant, then as a measure of precaution, his prayers are void. 

And if a person made a will before his death that one-third of his estate should be used for a particular cause, prayers cannot be offered in that property until that one-third has been dispensed. 

- If a person sitting in a mosque, is made to quit his place by someone who then occupies his place, the prayers offered there will be valid, though he will have committed a sin. 

- If a person does not know, or forgets that a place is a usurped one, and offers prayers on it, and learns or remembers it after offering prayers, his prayers are in order. However, if a person usurped a place himself but forgets it, and offers prayer there, his prayers are void. 

- If a person knows that a certain place is usurped, but does not know the rule of prayers at a usurped place are void, and offers prayers there, his prayers are void. 

- If a person is obliged to offer obligatory prayers while riding, and if the animal of his riding, or its saddle, or stirrups are usurped ones, his prayers are void. And the same rule applies if he wishes to offer Mustahab prayers while riding that animal. 

- If a person owns a property in partnership with another person, and his share is not defined, he cannot use that property to offer prayers without the consent of his partner. 

- If a person purchases a property with the sum of money from which Khums has not been paid by him, his use of that property is haraam, and the prayers which he offers in it are void. 

- If the owner gives a verbal consent for offering prayers in his property, but it is known that he is not happy about it at heart, then offering prayers in his property is void. Conversely, if he does not give verbal permission but it is known with certainty that he is happy about it, then offering prayers in his property will be in order. 

- Use of a property which belongs to a dead person, who has not paid Zakat or other similar dues, is allowed, provided that such a use does not in any way prevent from obligations. A person wishing to pray in such property can do so, with the permission of the heirs. Similarly, there will be no objection, if the debt is paid up, or guaranteed for payment. 

- The rule for the use of a property belonging to a dead person who is indebted to people, is the same as above mentioned rule, pertaining to Zakat and other similar dues. 

- If a dead person did not owe anyone, but some of his heirs are either minor, or insane, or absent, then use of that property without permission of the guardian of those heirs, is haraam, and it is not permissible to offer prayers in it. 

- To pray in someone’s property is permissible only when the owner has given an explicit consent, or has made a hint implying permission. For example, if he permits a person to stay and sleep in his property, it will be implied that he has given him permission for offering prayers as well. 

- It is permissible to pray on a vast expanse of land, even if its owner is a minor, insane, or unhappy about praying on it. This also applies to lands which have no gates or walls over them. No permission will be required from its owner, except if it is known that the owner is minor, insane, or displeased about anyone praying there. In such a case, as an obligatory precaution, prayers should not be offered there. 

* The second condition: The place for prayers should not have such a vigorous movement which would make normal standing, Ruku or Sajdah impossible. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it should not prevent the body from being at ease.

But if one is forced to pray at such places, due to shortage of time, or any other reason, like in a car, on a ship or on train, then one should try to remain still, and to maintain the direction of Qibla, as much as possible. And if the vehicles move away from the direction, he should return to Qibla. 

- There is no harm in offering prayers in a car or a boat, or on railway train or other vehicles, while they are motionless. And if they do not cause excessive swaying to the body, when they are in motion, one can pray in them. 

- Prayers offered on a heap of wheat, or barley, or any other similar thing, which cannot remain steady, is void. 

* The third condition: A person should offer prayers at a place where he sees the possibility of completing the prayers. To pray at a place where one cannot complete the prayers, because of strong winds, or heavy rains or a teeming crowd, will render Prayer void, even if one somehow manages to finish the prayers. 

- If a person offers prayers at a place where it is forbidden to stay, like, under a roof which is about to collapse, his prayers are in order, though he will have committed a sin. 

- To pray on an object upon which it is haraam to step, or sit, like a carpet upon which the name of Allah is drawn or written, will render prayers void, if the action is meant to displease Allah. 

* The fourth condition: The ceiling of the place where one prays should not be so low, that one may not be able to stand erect, nor should the place be so small, that there may be no room for performing Ruku or Sajdah. 

- If a person is forced to offer prayers at a place where it is not at all possible to stand, he will pray while sitting. And if it is not possible to perform Ruku and Sajdah, he should perform them by head signs. 

- One should not offer prayers in front of the graves of the holy Prophet, and the holy Imams, if it entails irreverence, otherwise there is no harm in it. 

* The fifth condition: If the place where one wishes to pray is najis, it should not be so wet that its moisture would reach the body or the dress of the person praying. But, if the place where one places one's forehead while performing Sajdah, is najis, the prayers will be void, even if that place is dry. And the recommended precaution is that the place where one offers prayers should not be najis at all. 

* The sixth condition: As an obligatory precaution, women should stand behind men while praying. At least, her place of Sajdah should be in line with his thighs, when in Sajdah. 

- If a woman stands in line with man, or in front of him in Prayer, and both of them begin together, they should repeat their prayers. And the same applies if one of them starts earlier than the other. 

- If a man and a woman are standing side by side in Prayer, or woman is in front, but there is a wall, curtain, or something else separating them, so that they cannot see each other, the prayers of both of them are in order. Similarly, the prayers of both will be valid if the distance between them is ten arms. 

* The seventh condition: The place where a person places his forehead while in Sajdah, should not be higher or lower than a span of four fingers, when compared to the place of thighs or toes of his feet. The details of this rule will be given in the rules relating to Sajdah. 

- For a Na-Mahram man and woman to be at a place, where there is a possibility of falling into sin is haraam. As a recommended precaution, one must avoid praying at such places. 

- Prayers at a place where musical instrument etc. is being played, is not void, but hearing or performing it is a sin. 

- The obligatory precaution is that in normal situation, obligatory prayers should not be offered in the Ka'ba, and on the roof of the Holy Ka'ba, but there will be no harm if one is forced to do so. 

- There is no harm in offering Mustahab prayers in the Holy Ka'ba, or on its roof. In fact, it is Mustahab to offer two Rak'ats before every pillar within the Holy House.